||The International Atomic Energy Agencyís (IAEA) June 2003 report on Iranís nuclear program has stripped the Islamic Republic of the agencyís seal of approval and elevated international concern about Tehranís nuclear intentions. Heightened suspicion that Iranís civilian nuclear energy infrastructure masks a clandestine weapons program has galvanized international cooperation among the United States, the European Union, and Russia and is likely to result in increased external pressure on Iran to remain in compliance with its Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) commitments.This international pressure will aim, at a minimum, to ensure Iranís adherence to the enhanced safeguards system contained in the IAEAís Additional Protocol (the so-called 93+2), intended to increase the transparency of a stateís nuclear program; yet, the regime in Tehran has resisted or placed conditions on its adherence to this measure. To justify its position at home, the regime has again played the political trump card of Iranian nationalism and has cast its defiance as principled resistance to a discriminatory effort inspired by the United States to deny advanced technology to Iran.
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Shahram Chubin is director of research at the Geneva Centre for Security Studies in Switzerland. Robert S. Litwak is director of the Division of International Studies at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, D.C.